By Beatrice Lamwaka
Sunday, September 18, 2011
Reintegration is hard for all child soldiers in northern Uganda who were abducted and forced to commit atrocities for insurgents. For girls who also had to marry and have children with rebels, the social rejection can be particularly acute.
GULU, Uganda (WOMENSENEWS)--Rebels with the Lord's Resistance Army abducted Florence Ayot, 31, in 1989, when she was 9 years old.
She served as a wife to Dominic Ongwen, a rebel commander who is now wanted by the International Criminal Court in The Hague for crimes against humanity and war crimes.
Ayot had two children with Ongwen, a daughter, 8, and son, 6.
She says she used to want to escape, but now she'd rather still be in captivity because she hasn't been able to rebuild her life here. Villagers constantly give her unwanted attention because of her former husband.
"I am always called a killer possessed with the evil spirit," she says. "Life in captivity was much better because then I had a home with the rebels."
The more than two-decade armed conflict between the Ugandan government and rebels with the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) left tens of thousands of people dead and 2 million people displaced in northern Uganda, according to the Institute for War and Peace Reporting, a nonprofit organization.
LRA rebels abducted tens of thousands of children, with estimates by various organizations ranging from 30,000 to 60,000. The rebels forced many of the abducted children to become child soldiers who raped, maimed, tortured and killed.
Rebels trained Ayot to be a soldier. She says women fought with their babies strapped to their backs. Ayot escaped in 2005 after her infant son was shot while he was on her back during a fight with government troops.
She now lives in a rented home in Holy Rosary settlement camp, along with approximately 30 other women who returned from LRA captivity with children.
"I feel that my return is useless," she says. "The government has abandoned me and my two children. I cannot afford to pay for my children's school fees."
Although all former child soldiers struggle to reintegrate into the communities where they were once forced to commit atrocities, advocates say that it is the women in northern Uganda, especially those who had children with LRA rebels, who struggle the most.
While contending with community rejection, they must also cope with the traumatizing experiences they endured in captivity. Those include rape, other forms of sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies and combat injuries, according to testimonies of 35 formerly abducted mothers gathered by the Uganda Association of Women Lawyers, an advocacy group. These women have limited access to health facilities and health-related information.
The government and various humanitarian organizations have set up interventions to assist former abductees. But many of the women say that current approaches overlook them, take advantage of them and can't make up for everything they lost.
In 2000, the government passed the Amnesty Act, which offered blanket immunity and reintegration packages, including money and basic necessities, to LRA rebels who laid down their weapons in order to help them start new lives.
In 2006, the government and LRA rebels signed a truce brokered by neighboring South Sudan and began peace talks. LRA leader Joseph Kony has repeatedly refused to sign a final peace deal, according to press reports.
Meanwhile, the people of northern Uganda and former abductees say they still suffer the hangover of the LRA insurgency.
Ayot says she has difficulty relating to men because of her abduction. She was in a relationship with a man, but he left her when he found out she'd been Ongwen's wife. She says he took all the contents of her reintegration package from the government, which included an amnesty certificate, blankets, saucepans and some money.
Ayot now washes people's clothes and plasters the walls of people's houses with cow dung to earn money. She says the government should pardon her former husband, whose current whereabouts are unknown, so he can return home and take responsibility for his children.
"My former husband was also abducted," she says.
By Apophia Agiresaasi
By Kristin Choo
By Nicole Leistikow
By Dr. Marjorie S. Rosenthal
By Stephanie Geier
By Marsha Walton
By Juhie Bhatia
By Afghan Women's Writing Project
By Amy Lieberman
By Michele Weldon
By Sharon Johnson
By Sharon Johnson
By Tricia Taormina
By Ann Marie Cunningham
By Tricia Taormina