By Lise Eliot
Sunday, September 5, 2010
Neuroscientist Lise Eliot argues for more brain research on boy-girl differences in this excerpt from her new book, "Pink Brain, Blue Brain: How Small Differences Grow Into Troublesome Gaps--And What We Can Do About It."
Of course, parents are never truly neutral about gender. Regardless of which toys or clothes we buy them, we cannot help but react in different ways to our sons and daughters--if only because of our own long experience of "male" and "female." But still, I had thought our kids would be different. As a neuroscientist and Martha Stewart dropout, having given up all aspirations of being a domestic goddess, I am hardly the typical female role model. My husband, also a scientist, fits the male type in many ways (he can fix almost anything around the house--as long as it doesn't interfere with Monday Night Football) but is kinder and gentler than many of the women I know.
And yet, there they are: Julia quietly makes paper flowers or sets up her Playmobil house while Sammy launches cars off his Hot Wheels track or begs me to pitch Wiffle balls to him outside. Even little Toby, with his clear, high-pitched voice, started steering the boy course early, judging from his toddler fascination with trucks, airplanes, balls and any kind of electrical appliance.
Yes, boys and girls are different. They have different interests, activity levels, sensory thresholds, physical strengths, emotional reactions, relational styles, attention spans and intellectual aptitudes. The differences are not huge and, in many cases, are far smaller than the gaps that separate adult men and women. Little boys still cry, little girls kick and shove. But boy-girl differences do add up, leading to some of the more alarming statistics that shape the way we think about raising our children.
Here's a stark one: Boys are at greater risk than girls for most of the major learning and developmental disorders--as much as four times more likely to suffer from autism, attention deficit disorder and dyslexia. Girls, for their part, are at least twice as likely as boys to suffer from depression, anxiety and eating disorders. Boys are 73 percent more likely to die in accidents and more than twice as likely to be the victims of violent crimes (other than sexual assault). Girls are twice as likely as boys to attempt suicide, but boys are three times likelier to succeed at it.
On the academic side, girls of all ages get better grades than boys. Women now constitute the majority of U.S. college students--a startling 57 percent. And yet males continue to score some 25 points higher on the SAT exam and outnumber females 4-to-1 in college engineering degrees. In spite of their educational gains, women earn less than 80 cents for every dollar earned by men.
Sex matters. As much as we may strive to treat them equally, boys and girls have different strengths and weaknesses and face very different challenges while growing up. Boys are more vulnerable early in life: they mature more slowly, get sick more often and are less likely to have mastered the language, self-control and fine motor skills necessary for a successful start in school. In recent years, as academic expectations have intensified, boys' slower start is stretching into a significant handicap even into the middle-school and high-school years, where they trail girls in graduation rates, academic performance and extracurricular leadership positions.
Girls pull through the early years more easily than boys, hitting their vulnerable phase around puberty, when their confidence slips, their math and science interests wane and young womanhood comes to be defined by beauty and submissiveness. Then, after girls navigate the minefield of adolescence, they face even greater challenges out in the real world, where they struggle with the contradictions of ambition and femininity and the conflicting values of the workplace and child rearing.
These differences between the sexes have real consequences and create enormous challenges for parents. How can we support both our sons and daughters, protect them and still treat them fairly when their needs are so very different?
I study the brain and believe we can't even hope to tackle these issues until we know where the differences come from. What is going on inside boys' and girls' heads that triggers such different interests, emotional reactions and mental abilities? Are male and female brains fundamentally different from each other? Are boys and girls wired differently from birth?
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Lise Eliot, Ph.D., is associate professor of neuroscience at the Chicago Medical School of Rosalind Franklin University, where she teaches and researches about brain development, learning and gender differences. She is also the author of "What's Going On In There? How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life."
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