By Danielle Shapiro
Thursday, February 25, 2010
Margot Wallström starts March 1 her two-year stint as special U.N. representative on ending conflict-zone sexual violence. She says she'll be going right away to the Democratic Republic of Congo, a global epicenter of mass rape.
NEW YORK (WOMENSENEWS)--Margot Wallström's two-year U.N. assignment to stem sexual violence in conflict areas begins March 1, with an immediate focus on the Democratic Republic of Congo.
"I will be traveling there as soon as possible," Wallström said in a phone interview last week with Women's eNews from her home in Hammaro, Sweden. "The reports we get from the people we work with on the ground are so serious that we cannot but focus our efforts and reinforce our efforts in the Congo."
Wallström was appointed special representative for sexual violence earlier this month by U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and has left her post as vice president of the European Commission.
Wallström's appointment and mandate is laid out in Security Council Resolution 1888, which was passed in late September and calls for peacekeeping missions to protect women and children from sexual violence during conflict.
The Democratic Republic of Congo signed a ceasefire agreement with 22 armed groups in 2008, but the country remains mired in armed conflict and has become widely known as the global epicenter of wartime sexual violence. The U.N. Population Fund says more than 15,000 rapes were reported in 2009, including 9,045 in the war-torn east.
The conflict is profoundly complex. In the last dozen or so years the conflict has claimed the lives of about 5.4 million people and involved at least seven nations and several powerful militias, all accused of committing acts of sexual violence.
Alliances and power relations are ever changing and the government of Joseph Kabila has recently expressed its desire for the U.N. to begin drawing down its more than 20,000 uniformed personnel, who make up the largest peacekeeping force in the world.
"There are no quick fixes," Wallström said. "That is why we have to do as much as we can on the political level and through the peacekeepers on the ground. We'll need the government to do more if we are to change the situation on the ground and then listen to the peacekeepers. What do they need to protect women?"
Wallström said she expected to work with the government, U.N. peacekeepers and an array of nongovernmental organizations to implement a comprehensive strategy that the U.N.'s Congo mission, or MONUC as its known by its French acronym, completed in March 2009. That plan was produced in consultation with the U.N. country team and the Congolese government.
"What's unique is we are all talking about one strategy and it is part of a national strategy," said Beatrix Attinger Colijn, senior advisor for sexual violence with MONUC.
A central element of the plan is curbing the rampant impunity of those who commit sexual violence, including members of the military, armed militias operating throughout the east and, increasingly, civilians.
Often victims refrain from identifying attackers out of fear of retribution against themselves and their families. They may also be reluctant to admit the attack in the first place because rape carries so much stigma. Survivors may not know their rights to legal recourse.
Military commanders sometimes protect their soldiers from prosecution, according to a 2009 Human Rights Watch report. Because Congolese law holds that the judge in a court martial must have a higher rank than the defendant, many judges cannot try high-ranking military authorities. The cases are rarely transferred.
The plan also envisions improving victims' access to justice by informing women of their rights, strengthening local police units, organizing mobile courts in rural areas, providing protection for victims, witnesses and others associated with cases and not requiring victims to pay legal fees.
It also focuses on applying the country's 2006 law on sexual violence, which criminalizes sexual mutilation and slavery and the insertion of objects into a woman's vagina.
Those who commit sexual assaults must be excluded from security services like the army or police, according to the U.N. plan, which also calls for special training for military, police and peacekeepers to prevent sexual violence.