By Juhie Bhatia
WeNews managing editor
Monday, April 9, 2012
Diabetes and obesity are big problems for Hispanic women in New York, particularly those in low-income areas such as the South Bronx. Nutritionists say lessons in healthier eating and cooking begin with a cultural understanding of food.
In the absence of any concerted effort targeting immigrant and different ethnic groups, various organizations and individuals are developing their own outreach efforts.
Lorena Drago, a dietitian and certified diabetes educator, spearheaded a grocery store tour last year for Hispanics on Long Island to talk about healthy shopping.
Since most of the participants were from Central America, her shopping list included root vegetables such as taro, cassava and Caribbean yams, as well as plantains, pork rinds and creams widely used in the region. Each food was accompanied with a graphic, since one food can have varying names in the Hispanic community.
Drago said that direct translations of generic nutrition materials, while common, aren't enough.
"The information may be linguistically Spanish but it doesn't mean it's culturally specific," she said.
Drago added that she's learned that healthy eating isn't an easy concept to teach or apply in one's life.
"The [nutrition] message needs to be a bit more uniform, it needs to be heard from many venues and it needs to be done in a way so that it's not the person who fits the tool, but the tool that fits the person," she said. "You don't get good at this by hearing the message once or getting a pamphlet."
Poverty often goes hand-in-hand with health disparities. Low-income neighborhoods in the city, where many immigrants live, have a higher rate of both obesity and diabetes.
Christina McGeough, a certified diabetes educator who's worked as a bilingual nutritionist for almost 10 years, said many immigrants eat the same amount of food as in their home country but are less active once in the United States, while others give up traditional foods and switch to the many convenience and easy-to-access foods available here. This can increase waistlines, as well as the chance of developing diabetes.
"Lots of communities of immigrants live in low-income areas where there's less fresh fruits and vegetables available and more fast food," said McGeough.
In this setting, she said teaching nutrition demands a good understanding of the local population. "Once you know that, you can design a message that speaks to them," she said. "It's about creating tools that the cultural group you're working with can relate to. Often people create one-size-fits-all materials and it's not useful."
McGeough uses focused tactics with her patients at The Institute for Family Health in the Bronx. If her patient is West African, for instance, she may work with food options such as starchy cocoyam, cornmeal and cassava and protein-filled black-eyed peas, maafe and kitoza.
Late last year City Harvest, a non-profit organization that works to feed the city's population, conducted a six-week class on healthy cooking techniques, recipes and nutrition basics in the heavily Hispanic neighborhood around the Bravo supermarket.
City Harvest doesn't mold its healthy cooking classes around traditional ethnic diets. But its choice of venue--the Bronx Spanish Evangelical Church--offered a familiar setting to many in the class.
On one December afternoon about 30 participants--mostly women and girls--sat at tables covered in Christmas-themed plastic coverings. Under fluorescent lighting they listened to two volunteer nutritionists and a chef talk about how to chop the vegetables and fruit that lay in front of them on flimsy cutting boards.
That day's menu: veggie pizza on whole wheat English muffins and fruit and yogurt parfait. The instructions were translated into Spanish, as two-thirds of the class was Hispanic.
Instructors said they purchased ingredients at the Bravo supermarket, down the street, where Perez was shopping.
One of the class participants was Gladys Bonilla, who moved into the neighborhood from Honduras in 1985. While many of the recipes were different from the Honduran food she makes at home for her family, Bonilla said she's learned a lot about healthy eating. Bonilla, who has diabetes, said she's using less salt and oil in her cooking now and is eating less fried foods.
She heard about the cooking class when visiting the church's food pantry and soup kitchen. At first, one of her two granddaughters didn't want to go. Now the girls push her to attend the class weekly.
"I feel happy in this place," Bonilla said in Spanish through a translator. "I feel like part of the family here."
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Juhie Bhatia is managing editor of Women's eNews.
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