By Amy Lieberman
Friday, July 1, 2011
Yingluck Shinawatra may well become Thailand's first female prime minister after July 3 elections. But women's rights advocates aren't enthusiastic, seeing her as a place-holder for her powerful brother, Thaksin Shinawatra, ousted in 2006.
BANGKOK, Thailand (WOMENSENEWS)--Thailand's first female candidate for prime minister is leading public opinion polls in the lead-up to the national election July 3.
But if Yingluck Shinawatra wins, prominent women's rights leaders here doubt she will do much to truly close the country's gender gap in political representation.
"This isn't a normal situation. Yingluck has never been in politics and she has never been fighting for the rights of women," said Sutada Mekrungruengkul, director of the Gender and Development Research Institute in Bangkok. "We cannot say this is progress or a sign of gender equality."
The 44-year-old business woman's political resume is mainly being the sister of Thaksin Shinawatra, the former prime minister ousted in 2006 on corruption charges who retains a strong hold over the leading Pheu Thai Party from self-imposed exile in Dubai.
Thailand's Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva dissolved the national parliament in May, in anticipation of the elections. Women were only 15 percent of its 650-person body, according to Pawadee Tonguthai, co-convener of Asia Pacific Women Watch, which monitors implementation of development goals focused on women set by the United Nations.
Mekrungruengkul believes that Yingluck's campaign rhetoric--full of praise for her popular older brother and seasoned with references to women's rights--will work.
"This may attract a lot of women voters and people in general who want to promote women's rights, since this is how the Pheu Thai Party is advertising her campaign," she said. "Yingluck is promising very big things, and if she can deliver on them, it will be good for women. But if not, it can really jeopardize our movement."
The women's rights movement in Thailand has few advocates among politicians. Many female candidates view organizations devoted to women as making trouble, says Sirirporn Skrobanek, chairperson of the Foundation for Women, a non-governmental organization that combats violence and discrimination against women.
Female participation in Thai government is among lowest in Southeast Asia.
In 2007, women were less than 7 percent of local officials, according to the United Nations Development Program. In 2011, that figure had climbed to almost 12 percent--past Sri Lanka--but still lagging 23 nations in the region. In those countries, high-ranking female senators rose to almost 16 percent from around 11 percent between 2000 and 2008.
In addition, Thailand has a longstanding tradition of male politicians advocating for their sisters, wives and daughters to run in their place.
This year that trend is particularly pronounced.
Of the 3,800 candidates running for positions in the 500-seat capacity House of Representatives, 2,800 are men and 1,000 are women. Roughly 40 percent of the women are related to an acting male politician.
Mekrungruengkul is quick to note that unlike Yingluck, some of these women do also have experience in public office. Yingluck's nomination and large following represent a revival of the pro-Thaksin "red shirts," or United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, a rural, grassroots movement formed in 2006 to protest the military government that overthrew Thaksin shortly before the elections, according to the women's rights advocates interviewed.
The following five years of power struggle between the "red shirts" and the People's Alliance for Democracy "yellow shirts" -- royalist, urban, upper-class and anti-Thaksin -- have embroiled the capital city in violent street protests and, in a sign of deep instability, a succession of five prime ministers.
Yingluck's election could incite "yellow shirts" and lead them to protest or launch a military coup, some analysts predict. Such a scenario would prevent her from moving forward on campaign promises.
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